Wissenschaftliche Publikationen

Hier finden Sie einen Überblick über die veröffentlichten wissenschaftlichen Publikationen zur Entwicklung und Anwendung von GOAT.


Assessment of the usefulness of the accessibility instrument GOAT for the planning practice

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urbmob.2022.100033

Autor/-innen: Elias Pajares, Ulrike Jehle, Joelean Hall, Montserrat Miramontes, Gebhard Wulfhorst

Datum: 4 October 2022

Schlüsselwörter: Accessibility ; Active mobility ; PSS

Zusammenfassung: Accessibility instruments could serve as powerful support in assisting planning practitioners. Though, accessibility instruments are usually not yet applied in practice. Past research has identified that besides institutional barriers in adopting accessibility, there is still a lack of useful instruments. It is suggested that tool developers engage closer with planning practice to better meet requirements from practice. The authors developed an interactive and web-based accessibility instrument called GOAT, focusing on active mobility in a co-creative environment with urban and transport planning practitioners. This manuscript aims to answer two research questions. Which planning questions exist for GOAT in the field of transport and urban planning? Is the accessibility instrument GOAT of useful support in the planning practice?

First, suitable planning questions were identified. The tools’ utility and usability for the planning questions were self-assessed based on the experience in five applications workshops with 37 planning professionals in four German cities. The assessment was realized by analyzing workshop minutes and worksheets for the different planning questions. As a result, the usefulness was assessed for the planning questions and was summarized into four groups: Infrastructure Planning Walking, Infrastructure Planning Cycling, Location Planning, and Housing Development.

The assessment revealed that the tool helps answer common planning questions. In terms of usability, the tool could also be used by individuals unfamiliar with existing planning software after a half-day introduction. Meanwhile, practitioners requested further indicators and improvements in usability. Furthermore, stronger technical integration with existing systems should be envisaged. It is concluded that the involvement of planning practice was highly beneficial when developing and assessing the tool. Therefore, ongoing exchange and a long-term assessment of the tools’ usefulness are suggested in the future.


GOAT: Ein interaktives Erreichbarkeitsinstrument zur Planung der 15-Minuten-Stadt

https://doi.org/10.26084/13dfns-p024

Autor/-innen: Elias Pajares, Ulrike Jehle

Jahr: 2021

Schlüsselwörter: Erreichbarkeit; Planungswerkzeug; Fußverkehr; Radverkehr

Zusammenfassung: Die Sicherstellung einer hohen nahräumlichen Erreichbarkeit für den Fuß- und Radver - kehr erfährt mit dem Ansatz der 15-Minuten-Stadt einen enormen Bedeutungsgewinn. Erreichbarkeitsinstrumente als digitale Planungswerkzeuge können in der Praxis dabei unterstützen, Defizite sowie Potenziale im Raum aufzuzeigen. Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern das sich in Entwicklung befindliche, webbasierte Erreichbarkeitsinstrument GOAT unterstützen kann, evidenzbasiert im Sinne einer 15-Minuten-Stadt zu planen. Zum Einsatz kommen hierbei verschiedene Indikatoren wie Reisezeitisochronen, Heatmaps und räumliche Daten, welche zur Abbildung des Ist-Zustandes, aber auch für die interaktive Modellierung von Erreichbarkeitsszenarien eingesetzt werden. Trotz der bereits sehr guten Einsatzfähigkeit des Instrumentes besteht weiterhin die Herausforde- rung, einen ganzheitlichen Indikator für die 15-Minuten-Stadt zu entwickeln. Hiermit zusammenhängend gilt es zu klären, ob eine vielschichtige Vision wie die 15-Minuten-Stadt überhaupt ganzheitlich in digitalen Planungswerkzeugen bewertet werden kann oder ob gerade in der Nutzung mehrerer Indikatoren die Stärke liegt. Ebenso besteht der Bedarf, Lösungen und Zielvorgaben auch für suburbane und ländliche Räume zu entwickeln.


Analyse der Fußwegequalitäten zu Schulen: Entwicklung von Indikatoren auf Basis von OpenData

https://doi.org/10.26084/13dfns-p020

Autor/-innen: Ulrike Jehle, Elias Pajares

Jahr: 2021

Schlüsselwörter: Fußverkehr; OpenData; Walkability

Zusammenfassung: Kinder in Deutschland leiden verstärkt unter Bewegungsmangel, daher sollte das Gehen zur Schule gefördert werden. Damit Menschen zu Fuß gehen, ist jedoch eine attraktive und sichere Gehumgebung erforderlich. Es existieren zahlreiche Ansätze, die Fußgängerfreundlichkeit (engl. Walkability) zu bewerten. Jedoch fehlt es an einem auf den deutschen Kontext angepassten, übertragbaren Walkability Index. Basierend auf einer Vielzahl an offenen Datensätzen wurde für die Pilotkommune Freiburg ein multi-kriterieller Ansatz eines Walkability Index entwickelt. Dieser ist in das webbasierte Planungsinstrument Geo Open Accessibility Tool – GOAT integriert und zeigt pro Wegeabschnitt die Qualität für den Fußverkehr auf. Um gezielt Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Walkability priorisieren zu können, wurde außerdem ein Algorithmus zur Berechnung von Fußgängerpotentialströmen entwickelt. Dieser berechnet, ausgehend von allen Wohnhäusern, den kürzesten Weg zu ausgewählten Zielen. Die Einsatzmöglichkeit der entwickelten Indikatoren wird in diesem Beitrag anhand von Schulwegen beispielhaft erläutert.


Population Disaggregation on the Building Level Based on Outdated Census Data

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10100662

Autor/-innen: Elias Pajares, Rafael Muñoz Nieto, Liqiu Meng, Gebhard Wulfhorst

Datum: 1. Oktober 2021

Schlüsselwörter: Population disaggregation; Accessibility; Open data

Zusammenfassung: A wide range of disciplines require population data with high spatial resolution. In particular, accessibility instruments for active mobility need data on the building access level. Data availability varies by context. Spatially detailed national census counts often present the challenge that they are outdated. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach to hybrid population disaggregation. It updates outdated census tracts and disaggregates population on the building access level. Open and widely available data sets are used. A bottom-up population estimation for new development areas is combined with a top-down dasymetric mapping process to update outdated census tracts. A particular focus lies on the high flexibility of the developed procedure. Accordingly, users can utilize diverse data and adapt settings to a specific study context. Instead of requiring ubiquitous 3D building data, often unavailable free of charge, the approach suggests collecting building levels only in new development areas. The open-source software development was done using PostgreSQL/PostGIS as part of the co-creative development of the accessibility instrument GOAT in three German municipalities. A comparison with reference data from the population registry of one district was realized. On the building level, an R2 of 0.82, and on the grid level (100 m × 100 m), an R2 of 0.89 is reached. The approach stands out when land-use information is outdated; however, a spatially detailed census grid exists, but no ubiquitous 3D building information is available. Enhancements are proposed, such as improving the dasymetric mapping with machine learning and remote sensing techniques. Moreover, more reliable detection of new building development in already built-up areas is suggested to account better for urban densification.


Accessibility by proximity: Addressing the lack of interactive accessibility instruments for active mobility

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103080

Autor/-innen: Elias Pajares, Benjamin Büttner, Ulrike Jehle, Aaron Nichols, Gebhard Wulfhorst

Datum: 8. Mai 2021

Schlüsselwörter: Active mobility; GIS; Open source; Planning support systems

Zusammenfassung: The rise of concepts such as the 15-minute-city represents the growing importance of accessibility by active mobility. In order to promote accessibility, accessibility instruments are developed that have substantial potential to assist practitioners in decision making processes. Therefore, this research starts with an up-to-date overview on the suitability of accessibility instruments when planning for active mobility. It was found that accessibility instruments were significantly further developed in the last few years and there is a rising number of tools that contain novel features. However, it was identified that there is a clear lack of tools specifically designed for modeling active mobility that are open source, include interactive scenario building, and can easily be transferred to new study areas.

Therefore, an interactive accessibility instrument named GOAT (Geo Open Accessibility Tool) was developed, which is open source, transferable, and has an easy-to-use web interface. This instrument has been developed following an iterative software development process in close cooperation with practitioners from three municipalities in the region of Munich, Germany. The practitioners tested the tool independently in numerous workshops in order to provide feedback, which was integrated into the development. Furthermore, the tool was tested and transferred to more than 20 German municipalities, the City of Bogotá (Colombia) and Matosinhos (Portugal). First results show that the collaborative and open development process produced a user-centric solution, which bears the high potential to make planning for active mobility more effective and efficient.


GOAT wurde außerdem in zahlreichen studentischen Arbeiten, insbesondere am Lehrstuhl für Siedlungsstruktur und Verkehrsplanung an der TUM, eingesetzt. Eine Übersicht über die abgeschlossenen Arbeiten finden Sie auf der Lehrstuhl Webseite: https://www.bgu.tum.de/sv/lehre/abschlussarbeiten/